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Final Course Quiz
Which of the following statements are true regarding maximal oxygen uptake (VO_2
- VO_22 max reflects the highest rate at which the body can transport and utilize oxygen.
- VO_22 max can only be determined by having an individual perform strenuous exercise and using specialized laboratory equipment.
- VO_22 max is an objective measure of cardiorespiratory fitness.
- VO_22 max determines whether or not you will develop chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
With respect to the scientific evidence that demonstrates the time-efficiency of interval training, which of the following statements are true?
- A training program that involved one, four-minute burst of hard cycling improved maximal oxygen uptake to almost the same extent same as a protocol that consisted of four, four-minute efforts separated by a few minutes of recovery.
- A training program that involved three, 20-second “all out” cycling sprints within a 10-min time commitment increased maximal oxygen uptake to the same extent as a protocol that involved 50 minutes of continuous, moderate-intensity cycling.
- A training program that involved alternating 60-second periods of hard/easy exercise for 20 minutes resulted in greater weight loss than a protocol that consisted of 50 minutes of moderate-intensity continuous exercise.
- A training program that involved 60 minutes of alternating fast and slow walking improved cardiorespiratory fitness reduced body fat more than a protocol that involved 60 minutes of continuous walking at a steady pace in overweight people with type 2 diabetes.
Select the answer that best explains why interval exercise training can elicit improvements in fitness that are similar to — or greater than — traditional endurance exercise training, despite reduced time commitment.
- Interval exercise elicits rapid rates of change in metabolites that are “sensed” by specialized proteins in skeletal muscle, particularly in type II or fast-twitch fibres, which serve as molecular fuel gauges.
- Interval exercise uniquely activates type I or slow-twitch muscle fibres, including a special type of molecular fuel gauge that is unaffected by traditional endurance exercise.
- Interval exercise training increases the content of mitochondrial in skeletal muscle cells, whereas traditional endurance exercise training does not.
- Unlike traditional endurance exercise, interval exercise “switches on” molecular pathways that lead to changes to the heart, blood vessels and muscle cells.
What is the following statements is not true regarding the “afterburn” effect.
- Afterburn can be precisely measured as excess post-exercise oxygen consumption.
- Afterburn is related to exercise intensity.
- Afterburn reflects an elevation in metabolic rate compared to the normal resting state.
- Afterburn does not meaningfully contribute to daily energy expenditure.
With regards to the history of interval training, which of the following statements are true?
- Elite endurance athletes have incorporated interval training for over 100 years in their successful quests for Olympic gold medals and world records.
- The Royal Canadian Air Force developed an effective workout program for out-of-shape pilots during the Cold War that involved a time commitment of only 11 minutes per day.
- The “5BX” program created by one of Canada’s first exercise physiologists, Dr. Bill Orban, stands for “five bodyweight exercises”.
- The first scientific study of “Tabata”-style interval training involved bodyweight exercises performed in an intermittent manner for 20-seconds with 10-second recovery periods.
Many exercise physiologists are skeptical of the notion of an “exercise pill”, or the potential to develop a pharmacological compound that will produce the beneficial effects of exercise without the physical effort, for reasons including which of the following?
- Studies in animals reveal the potential for negative side effects of certain drugs touted as “exercise mimetics”, including the development of tumours.
- Pharmaceutical companies have been unable to develop drugs that can “fool” the body, or affect the same biochemical signaling pathways activated by exercise.
- While it may be possible for a drug to produce a few specific physiological responses, it is unlikely any single compound can elicit all of the beneficial changes that are known to occur with regular exercise training.
- The names of drugs that could serve as exercise pills are too complicated for people to remember.
Which of the following statements are true regarding the concept of the exercise continuum?
- It posits that different exercise intensities and durations can elicit divergent responses, which range from primarily strength adaptations on one end of a spectrum to mainly endurance adaptations on the other end.
- The concept arose towards the end of the second world war when injured soldiers were seeking to rehabilitate from injury.
- The concept was advanced by Thomas Delorme, a weightlifter and medical doctor who challenged conventional thinking that advocated not straining muscles during rehabilitation.
- The British physician Jeremy Morris applied the concept by studying health outcomes in London transit system workers who performed either mainly aerobic or mainly strength activities as part of their jobs.
Which of the following statements are true regarding principles discussed in Hacking Exercise for Health?
- An implication of the principle of combination is, performing bodyweight style exercises in an interval manner with short rest periods in between can be an effective strategy to boost both strength and cardiorespiratory fitness.
- An implication of the principle of variation is, you should use different types of exercises when doing interval training to improve cardiorespiratory fitness.
- An implication of the principle of effort is, the more intense you are willing and able to work, the shorter your workout can be and yet still produce benefits.
- An implication of the principle of progression is, as your fitness improves over the course of a training program, you must increase the duration of your workouts to continue to improve.
While of the following statements are true regarding the General Adaptation Syndrome?
- It is a theory that was developed in the 1930s by a physician named Hans Selye.
- It posits that stress is a negative stimulus on the body.
- It suggests exercise-induced physiological remodeling results from stress-induced disturbances to the body’s homeostasis.
- It explains cardiovascular adaptations to exercise such as new blood vessel formation, but not strength adaptations such as the hypertrophy of muscle cells.
Which of the following statements are true regarding cardiorespiratory fitness?
- It has been called the “fifth vital sign” and something that should be routinely measured by health professionals along with traditional markers such as body temperature and blood pressure.
- Brief intense interval exercise can increase cardiorespiratory fitness to the same extent as prolonged periods of continuous moderate-intensity exercise because of the “afterburn” effect.
- It is the only type of fitness that is associated with longevity and disease risk.
- It reflects the capacity of your heart, lungs and blood vessels to transport oxygen through the body.
Which of the following are true regarding strength?
- It is not as important as cardiorespiratory fitness for health and wellbeing.
- Greater strength has been linked to reduced risk of cancer.
- Greater strength, especially as we age, would help lower risk for frailty.
- None of the above are true.
Which of the following are true statements regarding the role that muscle fibres play in force generation during resistance exercise?
- Both type I and type II (slow and fat twitch) muscle fibres contribute to force generation during resistance exercise .
- Only lifting heavy weights results in type II muscle fibres being active
- Type I fibres are more fatigue resistant that type II fibres .
- All of the above are true.
When lifting weights with a high degree of effort, which of the following would occur?
- Both type I and type II fibres would be recruited.
- If the weight is lighter then only type I fibres will be recruited.
- Practised regularly, you will get stronger.
- Practised regularly, you may see muscle growth (hypertrophy).
Which of the following statements regarding how dietary protein results in a stimulation of muscle growth are correct?
- Protein causes your muscle to swell and that results in them getting bigger.
- Dietary protein turns on the process of muscle protein synthesis, which is like adding new bricks into the wall (muscle).
- Dietary protein blocks the increase in catabolic hormones after exercise promoting muscle growth.
- Dietary protein adds a small part to the growth of muscles, you still need exercise.
What are the dietary protein requirements at the RDA (recommended dietary allowance) and how much is it recommended people wishing to gain muscle mass consume?
- 0.8 g protein/kg/d and 0.8 g protein/kg/d
- 0.8 g protein/kg/d and 1.6 g protein/kg/d
- 1.6 g protein/kg/d and 1.6 g protein/kg/d
- None of the above.
The whole-body 5BX program is an example of what kind of exercise?
- A combined cardio, flexibility, and strength building routine.
- A routine that could increase your cardiorespiratory fitness and increase muscle mass (hypertrophy).
- A simultaneous bike, strength, HIIT routine .
- A program used by Canadian airmen to stay fit.
The biggest reduction in disease risk with regular performance of exercise occurs when?
- When you perform cardio exercise.
- When you perform resistance exercise.
- When someone who is doing nothing begins doing any exercise regularly.
- When you exercise in the fasted state.
Select the following correct statements in accordance to what has been taught in this MOOC.
- For the biggest benefits in terms of health it’s best to perform both cardio and resistance exercise.
- You can get benefits from even brief periods of higher intensity cardio work and performance of bodyweight exercises.
- Exercise can be helpful with some often unexpected benefits such as aiding with memory.
- Lifting weights with a high degree of effort means that you will not get stronger.
Sarcopenia and frailty are considered ‘a part’ of normal aging, but in this course what were you taught that would result in a reduction in your risk for sarcopenia and frailty?
- Perform resistance exercise.
- Consume more protein than the RDA.
- Take large daily doses of vitamin C.
- Avoid the consumption of simple sugars.
Which statement encompasses our view of ‘the best’ workout you can do for your health?
- The longest workout.
- The workout that makes you sweat like crazy .
- A workout performed first thing in the morning.
- The workout you enjoy and can stick to doing.
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