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**Introduction To C++**

**C++** is a general-purpose programming language that was developed as an enhancement of the C language to include object-oriented paradigm. It is an imperative and a **compiled** language.

C++ is a middle-level language rendering it the advantage of programming low-level (drivers, kernels) and even higher-level applications (games, GUI, desktop apps etc.). The basic syntax and code structure of both C and C++ are the same.

**C++ programming language was developed in 1980 by Bjarne Stroustrup at bell laboratories of AT&T (American Telephone & Telegraph), located in U.S.A. Bjarne Stroustrup is known as the founder of C++ language.**

Bit Array in C++ - Hackerrank Solution

### Objective

You are given four integers: N, S, P, Q. You will use them in order to create the sequence a with the following pseudo-code.

a[0] = S (modulo2^31)fori =1to N-1a[i] = a[i-1]*P+Q (modulo2^31)

Your task is to calculate the number of distinct integers in the sequence a.

#### Input Format :

Four space separated integers on a single line, N, S, P, and Q respectively.

#### Output Format :

A single integer that denotes the number of distinct integers in the sequence a.

#### Constraints :

1 <= N <= 10^80 <= S,P,Q <= 2^31

#### Sample Input :

3111

#### Sample Output :

3

#### Explanation :

a = [1,2,3]

Hence, there are 3 different integers in the sequence.

Bit Array in C++ – Hacker Rank Solution

#include <cmath> #include <cstdio> #include <vector> #include <iostream> #include <algorithm> using namespace std; int main() { /* Enter your code here. Read input from STDIN. Print output to STDOUT */ /* Bit Array in C++ - Hacker Rank Solution */ uint_fast64_t po = (uint_fast64_t)(pow(2, 31)); uint_fast64_t N, S, P, Q; cin >> N >> S >> P >> Q; bool r = false; uint_fast64_t c = 0; uint_fast64_t prv = S % po; uint_fast64_t crn = -1; uint_fast64_t i = 1; do { crn = (prv * P + Q) % po; if (crn != prv) { prv = crn; ++c; } else { r = true; } ++i; } while (i < N && !r); cout << c + 1 << endl; /* Bit Array in C++ - Hacker Rank Solution */ return 0; }