Magic Spells in C++ – Hacker Rank | HackerRank Programming Solutions | HackerRank C++ Solutions

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Introduction To C++

C++ is a general-purpose programming language that was developed as an enhancement of the C language to include object-oriented paradigm. It is an imperative and a compiled language. 

C++ is a middle-level language rendering it the advantage of programming low-level (drivers, kernels) and even higher-level applications (games, GUI, desktop apps etc.). The basic syntax and code structure of both C and C++ are the same. 

C++ programming language was developed in 1980 by Bjarne Stroustrup at bell laboratories of AT&T (American Telephone & Telegraph), located in U.S.A. Bjarne Stroustrup is known as the founder of C++ language.

Magic Spells in C++ - Hackerrank Solution

Problem

You are battling a powerful dark wizard. He casts his spells from a distance, giving you only a few seconds to react and conjure your counterspells. For a counterspell to be effective, you must first identify what kind of spell you are dealing with.
The wizard uses scrolls to conjure his spells, and sometimes he uses some of his generic spells that restore his stamina. In that case, you will be able to extract the name of the scroll from the spell. Then you need to find out how similar this new spell is to the spell formulas written in your spell journal.
Spend some time reviewing the locked code in your editor, and complete the body of the counterspell function.

Check Dynamic cast to get an idea of how to solve this challenge.


Input Format :

The wizard will read t scrolls, which are hidden from you.
Every time he casts a spell, it’s passed as an argument to your counterspell function.

Constraints :

  • 1 <= t <= 100
  • 1 <= |s| <= 1000, where s is a scroll name.
  • Each scroll name s, consists of uppercase and lowercase.

Output Format :

After identifying the given spell, print its name and power.
If it is a generic spell, find a subsequence of letters that are contained in both the spell name and your spell journal. Among all such subsequences, find and print the length of the longest one on a new line.


Sample Input :

3
fire 5
AquaVitae 999 AruTaVae
frost 7

Sample Output :

Fireball: 5
6
Frostbite: 7

Explanation :

Fireball and Frostbite are common spell types.
AquaVitae is not, and when you compare it with AruTaVae in your spell journal, you get a sequence: AuaVae

Magic Spells in C++ – Hacker Rank Solution
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <string>
using namespace std;

class Spell 
{ 
    private:
        string scrollName;
    public:
        Spell(): scrollName("") { }
        Spell(string name): scrollName(name) { }
        virtual ~Spell() { }
        string revealScrollName() 
        {
            return scrollName;
        }
};

class Fireball : public Spell 
{ 
    private: int power;
    public:
        Fireball(int power): power(power) { }
        void revealFirepower()
        {
            cout << "Fireball: " << power << endl;
        }
};

class Frostbite : public Spell {
    private: int power;
    public:
        Frostbite(int power): power(power) { }
        void revealFrostpower(){
            cout << "Frostbite: " << power << endl;
        }
};

class Thunderstorm : public Spell 
{ 
    private: int power;
    public:
        Thunderstorm(int power): power(power) { }
        void revealThunderpower()
        {
            cout << "Thunderstorm: " << power << endl;
        }
};

class Waterbolt : public Spell 
{ 
    private: int power;
    public:
        Waterbolt(int power): power(power) { }
        void revealWaterpower()
        {
            cout << "Waterbolt: " << power << endl;
        }
};

class SpellJournal 
{
    public:
        static string journal;
        static string read() 
        {
            return journal;
        }
}; 
string SpellJournal::journal = "";

void counterspell(Spell *spell) 
{
/* Magic Spells in C++ - Hacker Rank Solution START */
/* Enter your code here. Read input from STDIN. Print output to STDOUT */
    if (Fireball *s = dynamic_cast<Fireball *>(spell)) 
    {
        s->revealFirepower();
    } 
    else if (Frostbite *s = dynamic_cast<Frostbite *>(spell)) 
    {
        s->revealFrostpower();
    } 
    else if (Thunderstorm *s = dynamic_cast<Thunderstorm *>(spell)) 
    {
        s->revealThunderpower();
    } 
    else if (Waterbolt *s = dynamic_cast<Waterbolt *>(spell)) 
    {
        s->revealWaterpower();
    } 
    else 
    {
        string scroll_name = spell->revealScrollName();
        string journal = SpellJournal::read();
        size_t s_size = scroll_name.size();
        size_t j_size = journal.size();

        if (s_size == 1 && j_size == 1 && scroll_name == journal) 
        {
            cout << 1 << endl;
        } 
        else 
        {
            vector<vector<size_t>> lcs_table(s_size + 1, vector<size_t>(j_size + 1));

            for (size_t i = 1; i <= s_size; ++i) 
            {
                for (size_t j = 1; j <= j_size; ++j) 
                {
                    if (scroll_name[i - 1] == journal[j - 1]) 
                    {
                        lcs_table[i][j] = lcs_table[i - 1][j - 1] + 1;
                    } 
                    else 
                    {
                        lcs_table[i][j] = max(lcs_table[i][j - 1], lcs_table[i - 1][j]);
                    } 
                }
            }
          cout << lcs_table[s_size][j_size] << endl;
        }
    }
/* Magic Spells in C++ - Hacker Rank Solution END */

}

class Wizard 
{
    public:
        Spell *cast() 
        {
            Spell *spell;
            string s; cin >> s;
            int power; cin >> power;
            if(s == "fire") 
            {
                spell = new Fireball(power);
            }
            else if(s == "frost") 
            {
                spell = new Frostbite(power);
            }
            else if(s == "water") 
            {
                spell = new Waterbolt(power);
            }
            else if(s == "thunder") 
            {
                spell = new Thunderstorm(power);
            } 
            else 
            {
                spell = new Spell(s);
                cin >> SpellJournal::journal;
            }
            return spell;
        }
};

int main() 
{
    int T;
    cin >> T;
    Wizard Arawn;
    while(T--) 
    {
        Spell *spell = Arawn.cast();
        counterspell(spell);
    }
    return 0;
}Magic Spells in C++ – Hacker Rank Solution

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