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- About The Coursera
- About Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age Course
- Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age Quiz Answers
- More About This Course
- Conclusion

**About The Coursera**

**Coursera**, **India’s biggest learning platform** launched millions of free courses for students daily. These courses are from various recognized universities, where industry experts and professors teach very well and in a more understandable way.

Here, you will find **Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age****Exam Answers** in **Bold Color** below.

These answers are updated recently and are **100% correctâś…** answers of all week, assessment, and final exam answers of **Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age** from **Coursera Free Certification Course.**

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**About Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age** **Course**

This course teaches basic ideas from statistics, probability, scientific methodology, cognitive psychology, and cost-benefit theory and shows how they can be used to do everything from choosing one product over another to critiquing media reports of scientific research. The ideas are explained quickly and then used in many examples from business, the news, and everyday life.

**Course Apply Link – Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age**

**Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age** **Quiz Answers**

### Week 1: Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Lesson 1 Quiz

Q1. From this list, choose the example that is a variable:

- The direction that the Earth rotates around the Sun
- The number of degrees in a right angle
- The distance from Los Angeles to El Paso
**The number of hours of daylight in a day**

Q2. From this list, choose the example that is a constant

- The heights of students in Miss Romeroâ€™s first grade class
**The number of whole tones (whole steps) in a major scale**- The number of complaints that a customer service office receives in a day
- The UV (ultraviolet) index reading for today

Q3. What percent of cases are within -1 and +1 standard deviation?

- 16%
- 84%
**68%**- 96%

Q4. What percent of cases are between -3 and +1 standard deviation?

**16%**- 84%
- 96%
- 68%

Q5. Phoebe is at the 60th percentile in her math class and wants to hire a tutor who can help her perform in at least the 75th percentile. Tutor A helps students perform at .5 standard deviations above the class mean and charges $10 per hour. Tutor B helps students perform at 1 standard deviation above the mean and charges $12 per hour. Tutor C helps students perform at 2 standard deviations above the mean and charges $15 per hour.

Which tutor helps Phoebe meet her goal without spending unnecessary money?

- Tutor A
**Tutor B**- Tutor C

Q6. An online instructor is providing a digital badge as an incentive to learners who score in the 85th percentile or higher on a module exam. The exam scores have a normal distribution, with a mean of 70 and a standard deviation of 8. What minimum score out of the options below would learners need to receive the digital badge?

- 70
- 78
**85**- 87

Q7. Ohio Stateâ€™s introductory calculus class earns a mean score of 70 with a standard deviation of 12. Michiganâ€™s identical introductory calculus class earns a mean score of 70 with a standard deviation of 8. Both schools test program MathX. At Ohio State, the test groupâ€™s mean performance rises to 76. At Michigan, it rises to 74.

Which of the following interpretations is valid?

- The effect of MathX training on the studentsâ€™ scores is bigger at Michigan than at Ohio State.
**The effect of MathX training on the studentsâ€™ scores is the same at both schools.**- The effect of MathX training on the studentsâ€™ scores is bigger at Ohio State than at Michigan.

Q8. This (hypothetical) scatter shows data for MOOC X students. Which of the following statements correctly describes the scatterplot shown above?

- Most students who access around half of the chapters have higher grades than most students who access more chapters, and lower grades than most students who access fewer chapters.
- Most students who access more chapters have lower adjusted grades than most students who access fewer chapters.
**Most students who access fewer chapters have lower adjusted grades than most other students, and students who access more chapters have higher adjusted grades than most other students.**

Q9. You can have reliability without validity.

**True**- False

#### Quiz 2: Pre-lecture Reflection Prompt

Q1. Consider the scenario below and answer the follow-up question using what you already intuitively know about statistics. You will revisit this question at the end of this lesson, so keep a record of your response so that you can compare your response here to the follow-up question at the end of this lesson.

*You have two acquaintances at work: JB and KL. At the office party on Saturday, JB was friendlier than KL. Whatâ€™s the likelihood that JB will be friendlier than KL at the planning meeting on Monday? Give your reasoning to support your answer.*

*Now, imagine that over the last 20 times you dealt with JB and KL, JB was friendlier on average than KL. What do you suppose the likelihood would be of JB being friendlier than KL on average over the next 20 times you deal with them? Is the likelihood greater or less than the likelihood you reported for the above question? Why?*

#### Quiz 3: Pre-lecture Quiz

Q1. For each of the hypothetical research questions below, select the items where a random sample of 100 would be much more informative than a random sample of 10 (in contrast to only slightly more informative) if your research objective is to determine:

**The average height of males in the US**- The average number of legs that spiders have
- The average IQ of residents of New York City
- On average, the number of days per week that people exercise at the gym
- The average number of toes that babies are born with

#### Quiz 4: Lesson 2 Quiz

Q1. Sample values resemble population values as a **_ of their size. The _** the sample, the less likely it is you will get an unrepresentative value.

- Portion, smaller
- Constant, larger
**Function, larger**

Q2. We tend to go from an observation to a *___*

Hint: It is a one-word answer that ends in â€śâ€¦tionâ€ť

Enter answer here

Q3. Of the following examples, what would be a situation where the Law of Large numbers would help you make better decisions or assumptions:

- The distance listed on a flight path from London to Paris
- The number of degrees in a right angle
- The number of times the Earth rotates around the Sun per year
**The number of complaints that a customer service office receive in a day**

Q4. If we are trying to infer something about a population that has a lot of variability, the smaller a sample, the more likely it is to get a result that doesnâ€™t represent the population distribution.

**True**- False

Q5. If we are trying to infer something about a population that has a lot of variability, small samples representing a population can never be as accurate as larger samples.

- True
**False**

Q6. (Check all the answers that apply.)

For personality traits like friendliness, people:

**Are too quick to generalize**- Assume too little variability
- Are likely to treat them as variables
- Are too slow to generalize

#### Quiz 5: Post-lecture Reflection Prompt

Q1. Using what you know about the law of large numbers, re-evaluate the scenarios that you considered prior to watching the video.

*The last time you visited your boss in his office, he was extremely irritable. What do you suppose the likelihood would be of him being irritable the next time you go to his office? Give your reasoning to support your answer.*

*Now imagine that the last twenty times you visited you boss, he was extremely irritable. What do you suppose the likelihood would be of him being irritable the next twenty times you go to his office and why?*

How has your understanding changed since learning about the law of large numbers?

### Week 2: Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1:Lesson 3 Quiz

Q1. A group of researchers are looking to see if there is a correlation between having X trait and having allergies. Given the table below, what ratios must be compared to determine the presence of association between X trait and having allergies?

- 10/60 and 20/25
**50/60 and 5/25**- 10/50 and 20/5

Q2. What term accounts for the fact that when we are prepared to see an association we are more likely to see it?

- Illusory presence
**Illusory correlation**- Illusory causation

Q3. A variable which is associated with both variables of interest and which could explain the association between them is called a(n) ** __** variable.

**Confounding**- Independent
- Dependent

Q4. What is the term defining the probability that a result at least as extreme as the one obtained could have occurred given that there is in fact no relationship?

- Causation
- Illusory correlation
**Statistical significance**

Q5. Explain the statistical significance of a finding when p<.003

The probability that the result could have been obtained even if there is actually no relationship is less than ** _ in _**.

**3; 1000**- 5; 100
- 7; 100
- 5; 1000

#### Quiz 2: Lesson 4 Quiz

Q1. Correlation is just as good as an experiment at determining causality.

- True
**False**

Q2. The treatment in an experiment is considered the **_**. The thing that is measured in an experiment is considered the

**.**

*_***independent variable; dependent variable**- dependent variable; independent variable

Q3. Shortly after the new CEO took over Company Z, its stocks began to fall. John blames the change in stock value on poor management by the CEO. Why does John not have enough information to draw this conclusion (besides having a small sample size of one company)?

What do you think?

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

Q4. Many control variables in multiple regression analysis have very high validity but very low reliability.

- True
**False**

Q5. The method referred to as the Gold Standard Experiment is stronger than multiple regression analysis.

**True**- False

Q6. Benny wants to know if playing classical music or country music is better for memory, so to test both treatments, he flips a coin to determine which type of music he will listen to first and then perform the following tests:

- On Monday he plays classical music while trying to memorize a list of ten words.
- On Tuesday he tests himself and records his results.
- On Wednesday he plays country music while trying to memorize a new list of ten words.
- On Thursday he tests himself on the new words and records his results.

What type of testing is Benny implementing?

Enter answer here

Q7. Referring to the question above, does Bennyâ€™s experiment have a â€świthin designâ€ť or â€śbetween designâ€ť?

**Within design**- Between design

Q8. In â€świthin designs,â€ť the only thing that differs across treatments is:

- Neither treatments nor participants
**The treatments**- The participants

Q9. In â€śbetween designs,â€ť the treatments differ, but so do:

**The participants**- The hypotheses
- Neither treatments nor participants

Q10. The next few questions relate to the following scenario:

Kaiping has a hypothesis that eating dark chocolate before an exam will help students test better. She has the 26 students in Ms. Claudeâ€™s class eat dark chocolate before their calculus exam and the 32 students in Mr. Greenâ€™s class eat nothing before their calculus exam.

What is the independent variable?

What do you think?

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

Q11. What is the dependent variable?

What do you think?

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

Q12. Which class is in the experimental condition?

What do you think?

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

Q13. Which class is in the control condition?

What do you think?

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

### Week 3: Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Lesson 5 Quiz

Q1. Your mom tells you that she started eating dandelions and her stomach pains went away. Tell her why the dandelions may not be responsible for her decrease in stomach pain.

What do you think?

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

Q2. This shows the normal distribution of the test scores of students in Mr. Linâ€™s class. Mr. Linâ€™s top student Berta scored a 90. What do you predict her best friend Nadia scored if the correlation between friendsâ€™ test scores is .00?

- 70
**50**- 30

Q3. Please read both of these scenarios before answering the question.

Scenario 1: Your apartment building is full of rambunctious children. 70% of the children are from the second floor and 30% of the children are from the third floor. You wake up to find the newspaper outside of your door has been stolen. Your neighbor says she saw a child from the third floor running down the hallway.

Scenario 2: Your apartment building only allows dogs and cats in the building. 70% of the pets are dogs and 30% of the pets are cats. You wake up to find that the newspaper outside of your door has been torn to shreds. You know that dogs are known to cause four times more disturbances regarding newspapers than cats. Your neighbor says she saw a cat running down the hallway.

Which scenario do you think allows for more accurate estimates of the probability regarding who or what was responsible for the disturbance with your newspaper? Why?

- Scenario 1
**Scenario 2**

Q4. You just tested positive for a rare disease and want to know what the chances are of you actually having the disease. You know that out of 100 people, 10 people have the disease. 6 of the people who have the disease will test positive (60% of the people with the disease). 9 of the people who do not have the disease will incorrectly test positive (10% of the people who donâ€™t have the disease). What is the probability that you actually have the disease, given that you tested positive?

**6 / (6 + 9)**- 6/ 10
- 6 / 9
- 6 / (9 + 10)

#### Quiz 2: Pre-lecture Quiz

Q1. What do you need to know to find out if thereâ€™s a correlation between vaccination and autism?

#### Quiz 3: Lesson 6 Quiz

Q1. What term describes the belief that we understand the world by direct perception?

- Schemas
- Heuristics
**Illusion of objectivity**

Q2. Our perceptual system is highly accurate for an artificial world but not for the real world.

- True
**False**

Q3. What term describes cognitive structures that guide our understanding of the world?

- Illusion of objectivity
- Heuristics
**Schemas**

Q4. Where would people be more likely to vote for increased welfare?

- A polling station at a school
**A polling station next to a soup kitchen**- A polling station next to a pet shelter

Q5. What term describes mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that help us to understand the world but that can sometimes also lead us astray?

- Fundamental attribution error
**Heuristics**- Schemas

Q6. When people estimate the frequency or probability of events using the cue of how easily the type of event comes to mind, they are using what heuristic?

- Representativeness heuristic
**Availability heuristic**

Q7. The best predictor of future behavior is past behavior.

**True**- False

Q8. What term describes the tendency to mistakenly regard a disposition of the object or person as the primary cause of behavior, while ignoring important situational or contextual factors?

**Fundamental attribution error**- Confirmation bias
- Illusion of objectivity

Q9. What term refers to the fact that we often look only for evidence that could confirm the hypothesis and not for evidence that might disconfirm it?

**Confirmation bias**- Default bias
- Fundamental attribution error

Q10. What do you need to know to find out if thereâ€™s an association between getting up early and being in a good mood for most of the day?

What do you think?

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

Q11. What do you need to know to find out if thereâ€™s an association between doing drugs and dropping out of high school?

What do you think?

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

### Week 4: Mindware: Critical Thinking for the Information Age Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Pre-lecture Activity

Q1. You bought a $100 ticket to a basketball game when the league standings seemed likely to hang on this game and the star was going to be playing. Tonightâ€™s the night, but the star is not playing, nothing is actually going to hang on the outcome, and the stadium is 40 minutes away and itâ€™s starting to snow.

Whatâ€™s the best reason to go to the game?

Whatâ€™s the best reason not to go?

What do you think?

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

Q2. Youâ€™ve ordered an expensive meal that turns out to be not good. Should you finish it?

Whatâ€™s the best reason to do so?

Whatâ€™s the best reason not to do so?

What do you think?

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

#### Quiz 2: Lesson 7 Quiz

Q1. Cognitive dissonance occurs when our beliefs donâ€™t fit with our ** __**.

Enter answer here

Q2. It is always best to optimize when making choices.

- True
**False**

Q3. Using an example from your own life, perform your own weighted decision. (You may use the templates provided below.)

- (.docx)
- (PDF)

What do you think?

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

Q4. According to the Sunk Cost Principle, **__** benefits and costs should figure in your choices

**only future**- only past
- future and past

Q5. If you do not choose the action with the greatest net benefit, you will pay unnecessary **_**.

- Benefit costs
**Opportunity benefits**- Opportunity costs

Q6. What term accounts for when people demand more money for something than they originally paid for it?

**Endowment effect**- Choice architecture
- Net benefit

Q7. You recently started up your own clothing website. Customers must create an account in order to view your clothing options, and one of the questions they need to answer is whether or not they want weekly updates sent to their email addresses. In order to deliver information about your latest arrivals to the most customers, would it be better to ask customers:

â€śPlease check the box below if you would like weekly information about our latest arrivals?â€ť [Opt in]

or

â€śPlease check the box below if you would not like weekly information about our latest arrivals?â€ť [Opt out]

Why?

What do you think?

Your answer cannot be more than 10000 characters.

#### Quiz 3: Pre-lecture Quiz

Q1. Determine whether or not you think each of the following arguments is valid.

If I have the flu, then I have a sore throat. I have a sore throat. Therefore, I have the flu.

- Valid
**Not valid**

Q2. If the movie is not a comedy, then Joe did not see it. The movie is not a comedy. Therefore, Joe did not see it.

**Valid**- Not valid

Q3. If President Obama is Muslim, then heâ€™s not a Christian. President Obama is not Muslim. Therefore, President Obama is a Christian.

- Valid
**Not valid**

Q4. If itâ€™s a holiday, the bank will be closed. The bank is closed. Therefore, itâ€™s a holiday.

- Valid
**Not valid**

#### Quiz 4: Lesson 8 Quiz

Q1. All black cats are male. This cat is black. Therefore, this cat is a male.

This is an example of ** _**.

**Syllogism**- Propositional logic

Q2. If I eat peanut butter, I will get hives. I ate peanut butter. Therefore, I will get hives.

This is an example of ** _**.

- Syllogism
**Propositional logic**

Q3. If a conclusion is valid, then it is also true.

- True
**False**

Q4. Determine if the major (first) premise is sufficient or necessary and sufficient in order for the conclusion to be valid.

If I break my leg, I will wear a cast. I broke my leg. Therefore, I will wear a cast.

- Necessary and sufficient
**Sufficient**

Q5. You may recognize the next few arguments from before the lecture. They are not valid. Now determine if these arguments are not valid due to a converse or inverse error.

If I have the flu, then I have a sore throat. I have a sore throat. Therefore, I have the flu.

- Inverse
**Converse**

Q6. If President Obama is Muslim, then heâ€™s not a Christian. President Obama is not Muslim. Therefore, President Obama is a Christian.

- Converse
**Inverse**

Q7. If itâ€™s a holiday, the bank will be closed. The bank is closed. Therefore, itâ€™s a holiday.

- Inverse
**Converse**

Q8. The Law of Large Numbers, regression, statistical significance, etc., are all types of reasoning discussed in this course that are deductively valid.

- True
**False**

Q9. Which form of thinking would be more likely to support the statement: â€śContradiction is constant since change is constant.â€ť

**Principles of dialecticism**- Foundations of logic

Q10. Which form of thinking would be more likely to support the statement: â€śEverything must either be or not be.â€ť

**Foundations of logic**- Principles of dialecticism

**More About This Course**

Most jobs require more than just general intelligence these days. They also need to be able to gather, analyze, and think about information. When these same skills are used to solve problems in everyday life that require judgment and choice, it makes the person’s life better.

This course teaches basic ideas from statistics, probability, scientific methodology, cognitive psychology, and cost-benefit theory and shows how they can be used to do everything from choosing one product over another to critiquing media reports of scientific research. The ideas are explained quickly and then used in many examples from business, the news, and everyday life.

What can you expect to learn? Why most of the time it’s a bad idea to interview people for jobs? Why it’s very unlikely that your next meal at a new restaurant will be as good as the first, even if the first one was great. Why economists often leave movies early and don’t finish their food at restaurants. Why getting on the cover of Sports Illustrated usually means that your next season will be a letdown. Why you might not have a disease even if a test says you do. Why you can’t find out how coffee makes you feel unless you do an experiment where you flip a coin to decide if you’ll have coffee on a certain day. Why it might not be a good idea to have your office in a building you own instead of in someone else’s. Why you should never keep a stock that is going down in the hopes that it will go back up and save you from losing all of your initial investment. Why a lot of the health information in the media is wrong?

**SKILLS YOU WILL GAIN**

- Sunk Costs
- Costâ€“Benefit Analysis
- Cognitive Bias
- Decision-Making
- Data Analysis
- Statistical Inference

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**Conclusion**

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