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About African development – from the past to the present Course

From the past to the present, African development offers a distinctive economic historical viewpoint on the continent’s progress. The course covers a logical account of historical occurrences and choices that have shaped the current political-economical landscape of Sub-Saharan Africa over the course of five weeks, including pre-colonial and colonial times, the era of liberalisation, modern Africa, and the prospects for the continent’s future.

To profit from the course, one does not need to have a serious interest in history. The course is intended for a wide range of professional groups, actors, organisations, and interested people who all have an interest in bettering their awareness of the potential and constraints unique to the Sub-Saharan African continent.


  • A​ppreciate the historical political-economical conditions having shaped current day Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • A​ primer into approaching economical development from an economical-historical point of departure.

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African development – from the past to the present Quiz Answers

Week 1 Quiz Answers

Quiz 1: Introduction to the course

Q1. Have you explored the up-loaded information?

  • Yes
  • No

Q2. Have you located and accessed the online textbook – The History of African Development. An Online Textbook for a New Generation of African Students and Teachers?

  • No
  • Yes

Q3. What are the three delimitations of the course?

  • It covers some aspects of early history but focusses primarily on the last 100 years.
  • Most of the lectures are dedicated to historical events.
  • It covers economic history with some of its social implications, but not political or cultural history.
  • The term ‘Africa’ refers to Africa south of the Sahara and not North Africa.
  • It only covers the former British colonies.

Q4. Identify three development challenges that the African region is facing today.

  • Growing number of military conflicts and civil wars.
  • Traditional technology and limited market opportunities in the agricultural sector.
  • Continued natural resource dependency
  • Poor natural conditions for developing green energy such as solar power and hydroelectricity.
  • Rapid population growth

Q5. According to the course textbook – Frankema et al (2013) – the African incomes, measured as the GDP per capita increase, has over the period 1950-2010 increased to a:

  • Similar degree compared to Asia and Latin America
  • Lesser degree compared to Asia and Latin America
  • Higher degree compared to Asia and Latin America

Quiz 2: A theoretical approach to economic history

Q1. What are the three factors of production in the theoretical model?

  • Financial capital, machinery, and cattle
  • Natural resource, population, and institutions
  • Land, labour, and capital
  • Farmland, minerals, and oil

Q2. What is the correct definition of the term ‘institutions’ used in the theoretical model?

  • Institutions are key inventions driving technological change.
  • Institutions are arenas for negotiations between various interest groups.
  • Institutions are ‘the rules of the game’ determining human interaction.
  • Institutions are a group of people working as an entity.

Q3. What is a correct definition of the term ‘relative price’?

  • The relative price is determined by the supply and demand of labour resources.
  • The relative price is the market price of natural resources such as minerals or farmland.
  • The relative price is a theoretical concept denoting the inter-relationship between the factors of production regarding their quantity and quality.
  • The relative price reflects the sum that the state is willing to pay in compensation to its subjects when expropriating their resources.

Quiz 3: Literature – a historical review

Q1. What was the Ibadan school?

  • A group of Nigerian scholars in the 1950s emphasizing the importance of African researchers studying and writing about African history.
  • A group of development economists in the 1950s arguing that the African countries should follow the example of Europe regarding how to achieve sustainable growth.
  • A stream within the neo-liberal tradition in the 1980s focusing specifically on Africa’s development challenges.
  • A protectionist school recommending that African economies should withdraw as much as possible from international trade and instead focus on their domestic markets.

Q2. Present day African economic history has three prominent streams of research. Which?

  • There has been a renewed interest in the account of European explorers.
  • Africa is becoming more prominent in the field of global history.
  • The field has broadened to include a greater number of actors and perspectives.
  • There has been a quantitative data revolution.
  • There is a greater reliance on archeological evidence.

Q3. The colonial project required a mapping and documentation of the new subjects. Who did the colonial administrations employ to collect information about local societies histories, social organization, and so on?

  • European explorers
  • Missionaries and churches
  • European anthropologists
  • African local leaders

African development – from the past to the present Week 2 Quiz Answers

Quiz 1: Pre-colonial systems of production

Q1. Which are the four categories of ‘pre-colonial’ systems of production discussed in the lecture?

  • Cattle keepers
  • Crop farmers
  • Mining and handicraft
  • Cash crop farming
  • Hunter-gatherers
  • Petty trading and merchants
  • Public officials

Q2. Elementary textile production was found in several locations throughout Africa. Select two accurate statements about this budding proto-industry.

  • Incomes from the Nubian gold mines were used to pay for the establishment of local textile weavers.
  • In the 12th century, Great Zimbabwe became a leading textile producer.
  • Madagascar is known for its early silk production.
  • Archeological findings provide evidence that West Africa had a long tradition of professionally organized production of cotton cloth.

Q3. In the course textbook, Green (2013) argue that the introduction of maize in the 16th century signified a major change in African agriculture. In what way? Select two options.

  • The introduction and spread of maize increased the productive capacity of African farmers.
  • Maize was less vulnerable to bad weather and more resilient compared to local crops.
  • Maize was superior in terms of yield per hectare and nutritional value compared to local crops such as millet and sorghum.
  • Surplus maize production could be sold to travelling Arab merchants.

Q4. Green (2013) state a number of reasons explaining the low productivity in African agriculture. Which two of the following reasons are mentioned by Green?

  • Weak institutions regulating ownership of agricultural resources
  • Conflicts over scarce land resources
  • Insufficient supply of manpower to work the fields
  • Difficult climatic conditions and a hostile disease environment

Quiz 2: Political organisation and state formation

Q1. Which were the three most common forms of political organization in pre-colonial Africa?

  • Segmented political systems
  • Centralised political systems
  • Klan-based rule
  • City states
  • Autocracies headed by a king

Q2. Which was the first African state that we know of?

  • The Congo Kingdom
  • Axum in today’s Ethiopia
  • Great Zimbabwe in Southern Africa
  • Timbuktu in the Sahara

Q3. From the economic crisis in the 1980s and 1990s and until present, the size and efficiency of the African state have been criticized. What has been the main historical explanation to account for today’s weak African states?

  • All pre-colonial states on the African continent were established by foreign rulers and not by the African populations themselves.
  • The African pre-colonial African states were as a rule authoritarian and non-democratic.
  • Few centralized states were formed during the pre-colonial era because of low population density. There were consistent military conflicts between African states preventing them from flourishing

Quiz 3: Early international trade and its effects

Q1. Which four statements regarding Africa’s role in early international trade networks are accurate?

  • Sub-Saharan Africa was connected to the Mediterranean via the Trans-Sahara trade.
  • African societies imported goods such as salt, iron tools and woven cloth.
  • African societies primarily produced low value bulk goods such as maize and beef for the international market.
  • Africa’s only export good in the pre-colonial era was slaves.
  • Chinese export goods such as porcelain has been discovered amongst Great Zimbabwe ruins.
  • African societies exported high value goods such as gold, gemstones, ivory, and ostrich feathers.
  • Africa was an economically isolated region in the pre-industrial world.

Q2. What reason could there be for an individual to become a slave in the local African communities? Select three options.

  • Poor families offering their labour in exchange for food and shelter.
  • If an individual was captured by slave hunters to be sold at large auctions.
  • If you were taken as prisoner of war.
  • As a punishment for a crime.
  • When parents out of poverty and necessity sold their children to wealthier members of society.

Q3. In the course textbook, which three claims can be found in the article by Rönnbäck (2020)?

  • All African rules and societies showed willingness to sell slaves to the European slave traders.
  • The two major slave-trading European nations Britain and Portugal.
  • The potentially most devastating effects of the external slave trade came from the spirals of internal violence that it initiated or reinforced.
  • In the long-term perspective, the impact of the international slave trade on the local African societies have been exaggerated.
  • The international slave trade ended abruptly after the British ban in 1807.
  • Although the Trans-Saharan, Red Sea and Indian Ocean slave trades organized by Muslim merchants were of substantial magnitude, they have received significantly less scholarly attention than the Atlantic slave trade.

Q4. According to Rönnbäck (2020), which two regions received the highest numbers of slaves from the Atlantic slave trade?

  • The Caribbean and Southern United States
  • Brazil and the Caribbean
  • Brazil and other Latin American countries

African development – from the past to the present Week 3 Quiz Answers

Quiz 1: New commodities for international trade

Q1. What is a correct definition of the ‘gate-keeping state’?

  • It was a state that controlled the flow of labour, both European settlers and African labour migration, in and out of the colony.
  • It was a state that protected its boarders against the economic interests of other European empires.
  • It was a minimalistic state based on limited government revenues primarily collected through taxing trade.

Q2. Which three statements about the economic conditions for the colonial state and the role of the colonies within the European empires are accurate?

  • Every colonial administration should pay for its own activities with its own revenues.
  • The main ambition of the colonial powers was to subject their African colonies to plunder and expropriate natural resources for their own benefit.
  • The colonial powers were interested in the development of profitable enterprises developing their colonies.
  • The colonial states received financial support from the colonial powers to pay for implementing their development policies.
  • The colonial powers expected their African colonies to produce exotic crops for European consumers, develop mining ventures for European companies, and become export markets for European industrial products.

Q3. Give three examples of legacies from the gate-keeping state that we can detect in state structures in Africa today?

  • Many countries are, from the perspective of the size of their own economies, highly open to international trade in the sense that they are export dependent.
  • States depend on exporting goods that commonly have highly volatile on the international market.
  • The trade of goods within countries channeled through formal domestic markets is more important for government taxation and revenues compared to exports and international trade.
  • Governments are still highly dependent on taxing international trade to collect revenues.
  • Despite being small in terms of populations, African economies are major players within the global economy.

Quiz 2: The scramble for Africa

Q1. During the second half of the 19th century there were growing export opportunities for African agricultural products. Which three statements below about the process of change are true?

  • The industrialization in Europe resulted in rising incomes for some groups who could increase their consumption of ‘luxury goods’ such as cocoa.
  • The innovation of the steam engine lowered transportation costs for the African commodities.
  • Global demand for African commodities increased with growing economies in Asia and Latin America.
  • The booming industry in Europe demanded input of natural resources such as copper and tin.
  • Productivity increased significantly within African agriculture making African agricultural products cheaper on the global market.

Q2. Three agricultural products are discussed in depth in the lecture. Which?

  • Coffee
  • Sisal
  • Crude rubber
  • Groundnuts
  • Cotton
  • Palm oil

Q3. In the course textbook, Moradi (2014:3) writes: “It is often argued that Africa has a comparative advantage in agricultural products such as cocoa, coffee, cotton or groundnuts.” What does this mean?

  • African countries are the only possible producers of these commodities.
  • African countries can produce agricultural products at lower opportunity costs than other countries.
  • African countries are unable to produce sophisticated manufacturing goods.

Q4. The colonial states invested in developing infrastructure such as railroads. What was the purpose of the railroad lines in relation to trade opportunities?

  • To encourage more trade between colonial empires within the African region.
  • To connect the local African communities and encourage more domestic trade.
  • To facilitate the transport of export goods from the inland of Africa to the seaports for further shipment to Europe.

Quiz 3: Taxation and labour migration

Q1. At what conference in 1884-1885 did the European powers divide up the African continent between themselves?

  • The London Conference
  • The Berlin Conference
  • The Alexandria Meeting
  • The Paris Agreement

Q2. Identify three examples of African resistance, military conflicts or military leaders, fighting against European colonial conquest in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

  • Menelik II of Ethiopia
  • Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya
  • Anglo-ahsanti War
  • Samori Turé in West Africa
  • King Shaka of the Zulu Nation

Q3. According to Bolt (2013) – in the course textbook – what were the five factors that enabled the European colonial expansion?

  • Railroads
  • Steamboats
  • Market expansion
  • Quinine
  • Better weapons
  • Missionary presence
  • Administrative capacity
  • Racism and regeneration of African people
  • Political support of African allies

Q4. According to Bolt (2013), what were the three most important drivers of the Scramble for Africa?

  • Rivalries and shifts in the balance of power between countries within Europe.
  • The quest for increasing prestige by both European countries and individual Europeans in Africa.
  • Inter-African warfare after the abolition of the slave trade provoked European interference.
  • Missionary activities to enlighten and civilize the African populations.
  • Africa was thought to have great riches in natural resources and provide opportunities for investments and market expansion.

Quiz 4: Colonial administration

Q1. Which were the three first priorities of the colonial administrations?

  • Developing strategies for economic development.
  • Establishing territorial control by means of military presence.
  • Securing government revenues from existing African systems of production.
  • Obtaining international recognition of the colonial presence.
  • Establishing consistent colonial policies with principles for colonial rule.

Q2. Which three colonial stereotypes are discussed in the lecture?

  • Mining colonies – the colonial economy depending heavily on a mining sector dominated by European owned mining companies and African migrant labour.
  • Peasant colonies – limited European settlement and government revenues coming mainly from existing African systems of agricultural production.
  • Settler colonies – the European minority taking over substantial areas of fertile agricultural land and having significant influence on colonial politics.
  • Manufacturing colonies – the colonial administration developing a competitive manufacturing sector as the basis for economic development.
  • Indigenous rule – the colonial power securing economic profit by taxing the population, but allowing for some political independence by letting the local African leaders run the administration.

Q3. Select one characterization representative for the economic system that developed in most African colonial.

  • A form of capitalist hybrid where subjects were taxed but local economies were not brought to ruin.
  • A short-term plunder and destruction of the foundations of existing systems of production for the economic benefit of the colonial power.
  • A military and political territorial control but without strategies for economic gain.

African development – from the past to the present Week 4 Quiz Answers

Quiz 1: Liberation and independence

Q1. Which three of the following statements regarding the de-colonization process in Africa south of the Sahara are correct?

  • De-colonization was mostly a peaceful process and the transition to independence was mostly based on negotiations and referendums.
  • Independence from European colonialism automatically lead to democratic majority rule.
  • De-colonization was primarily violent and military liberation wars were a rule rather than an exception.
  • Great Britain started planning for the handing-over of political power already in 1946.
  • The military dictatorship in Portugal was unwilling to grant independence to its African colonies and liberation wars followed in Angola and Mozambique.

Q2. The independence struggle in the 1950s and 1960s was headed by a new generation of African leaders who took over the presidency. Please identify four examples.

  • Mobuto Sese Seko in Zaire
  • Heilie Selassie in Ethiopia
  • Léopold Senghor in Senegal
  • Hastings Banda in Malawi
  • Seretse Khama in Botswana
  • Thabo Mbeki in South Africa
  • Kwame Nkrumah In Ghana

Q3. What were, according to Asante (2015), four key factors that promoted African nationalism in the early 20th century?

  • Grass root movements based on the African countryside and consisting of farmers constituted the main driver of the independence struggles.
  • Increased sharing of information between communities enabled by improved transportations and communication networks as well as the spread of newspapers and pamphlets.
  • The broader pan-Africanist movement and the establishment of new political parties.
  • Before colonialism, African societies were egalitarian but during colonialism new African economic elites emerged who wanted to take over power.
  • A protest against unfavourable economic policies and economic hardship.
  • Rising levels of education in the African populations.
  • European socialists and revolutionaries spread the ani-imperialist struggle on the African continent.

Q4. Give three examples from Asante (2015) – in the course textbook – of international political factors that had a strong impact on the liberation process and the independent African states in the 1950s and 1960s.

  • The German loss of their African colonies because of their defeat in WWII.
  • The Atlantic Charter where Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt declared to respect the right of all people to become independent and choose their government.
  • The Marshall aid – the initiative by the United States to give financial support to rebuilding of the global economy after WWII.
  • The port-WWII emergence of the Soviet Union and the United States as the new global superpowers and the allegiances in the Cold war.
  • British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan’s ‘Wind of change speech’ in 1960 signaling the acceptance of the inevitability of decolonization.

Quiz 2: Mono-crop and mono-mineral economies

Q1. What does the characterization ‘mono-crop and mono-mineral economies’ refer to?

  • Economies with a narrow base depending on export incomes from a single cash crop or mineral.
  • Economies whose industries and manufacturing have developed to process a single cash crop or mineral.
  • Economies where the agricultural sector or the mining industry are controlled by state monopolies.

Q2. In the 1950s, did economists generally understand a country’s natural resource wealth to be primarily a:

  • curse
  • neither because abundant labour was more important
  • blessing

Q3. According to Millar and Rietveld (2015), what are three explanations to why natural resource wealth can become a resource curse?

  • The curse lies in the inability to find sufficient foreign investments to develop a mining industry and extract the resources and they are therefore left in the ground.
  • There is a long-term decline in commodity prices in the international market.
  • When the country has weak institutions there is poor management of natural resource wealth.
  • If the natural resource dependency leads to a lack of diversification of the economy.
  • There are no booms in natural resource prices in the international market.

Q4. Millar and Rietveld (2015) give a comparison between how oil in Nigeria and diamonds in Botswana have been managed. What are three differences between the two countries?

  • Nigeria has been oil dependent, but Botswana has not been diamond dependent.
  • Botswana has been a democracy while Nigeria has been a dictatorship.
  • Oil has more volatile prices on the international market compared to diamonds.
  • Botswana has had better institutional structures compared to Nigeria.
  • Corruption has been more widely spread in Nigeria than in Botswana.

Quiz 3: Industrialisation strategies

Q1. Identify three ways in which the use of the factors of production – land, labour and capital – change during the industrialization process.

  • There is an increasing demand for natural resources, for example coal and iron, used in industrial production.
  • The value of labour goes up as industrial workers improve their skills and there are innovators and engineers developing and applying new technology.
  • As machinery replaces labour in the industrial production, the value of industrial labour decreases.
  • As industrial production increases, agricultural production decreases and there is a decline in the value of land.
  • More capital is invested, and financial capital is transformed into physical capital such as machinery.

Q2. Identify two reasons why existing textile production in Africa struggled to develop and thrive during the colonial era.

  • There was not enough labour to develop a labour intensive manufacturing in parallel with food and cash crop production in the agricultural sector.
  • There was no local demand for textiles and hence no market opportunities.
  • There was not enough African labour with the skills required to produce textiles.
  • There was competition from imported industrially produced European textiles that were cheaper.

Q3. After independence, most African countries pursued so called Import Substitution Industrialization, ISI, strategies. What would be a correct definition of ISI?

  • Trade agreements regulating sales of industrial goods are established between newly industrializing countries.
  • Emerging industrial countries produce primarily for exports and secondarily for the domestic market.
  • Import quotas and high import duties are used to protect domestic industrial production from international competition on the domestic market.

Quiz 4: Structural Adjustment Programs and their repercussions

Q1. What was the Washington Consensus?

  • A consensus in the 1980s amongst leading American politicians on the principles for allocating foreign aid.
  • An agreement in the 1980s amongst Washington-based banks on the principles for approving loans to developing countries.
  • A neo-liberal package of policy recommendations put together in the early 1980s by the World Bank and the IMF together with other Washington-based financial institutions.

Q2. Identify two main types of reforms in the Structural Adjustment Programs packages.

  • Measures for changing the economic policy in the long run, for example, making changes to the banking system, deregulating trading policies, abolishing state monopolies and encouraging market competition.
  • Lowering tax levels for both companies and private individuals to encourage more spending and consumption of domestically produced goods.
  • Changing key institutional structures, for example, introducing rule of law and private property rights.
  • Providing imminent economic stabilization by means of financial policy, adjustment of exchange rates and enforcing trade balance.

Q3. Identify three common repercussions of the Structural Adjustment Program reforms.

  • Economic liberalization resulted in the expansion of productive sectors such as industry and manufacturing and a structural change in the African economies.
  • African countries experienced a modest but consistent growth in GDP per capita from the late 1980s onwards.
  • Growth and the repayment of loans was achieved through intensive growth with a more efficient use of the factors of production and increased productivity.
  • De-regulation and the growing number of private actors meant increasing producer prices for the large groups of African smallholder farmers.
  • To balance the budget, state expenditures were cut which had a negative impact on social development such as education and health care.
  • De-regulation opened for a growing number of private actors, but the African states generally persisted in controlling and taxing exports.

African development – from the past to the present Week 5 Quiz Answers

Quiz 1: African population growth

Q1. How many percent of the African population are today estimated to be under the age of 25?

  • 50%
  • 70%
  • 60%
  • 40%

Q2. Identify three correct statements relating to the opportunities and challenges of Africa’s current rapid population increase.

  • With population increase the relative price of labour goes down and labour-intensive production should become cheaper.
  • Labour abundance can only be positive if there are increasing opportunities for employment and additional incomes.
  • Current population increase is consistently spread between the African countries as well as between both rural and urban areas.
  • The current population increase is primarily driven by high and even increasing fertility rates.
  • When rural populations increase, there is a risk that land becomes a scarce production factor.

Q3. According to Hillbom (2013), the family system of lineage dominance in Africa is one important explanation for the current high fertility levels. Why? Give two reasons.

  • The lineage dominance system is equally prevalent in the rural and the urban areas.
  • In lineage dominance family systems, child mortality remains high and this is compensated for by high fertility.
  • The lineage dominance is stronger in the rural areas where children can also be used as agricultural labour.
  • The costs of raising the children are shared by the extended family and this reduces the economic incentives of having fewer children.

Q4. Hillbom (2013) point out that population numbers and population density (calculated as number of people per sq. km) do not have to coincide. Which two examples does she give of countries with high population density?

  • Nigeria
  • Burundi
  • Botswana
  • South Africa

Quiz 2: African urbanization

Q1. Identify three correct statements about the last decades’ urbanization process in Africa.

  • Currently, a growing number of land poor rural dwellers are migrating to the cities.
  • Africa has a long history of urban settlement, although the share of urban population of total has been low.
  • The current urbanization process is primarily driven by the expanding employment opportunities found in the African cities.
  • The current rate of urbanization is high, although starting from low levels.
  • The urbanization process is slow moving, and predictions are that Africa will remain a rural region for several decades to come.

Q2. Why is urbanization a force in fertility decline? Give two reasons.

  • It is a misconception that urbanization bring down fertility rates, instead fertility rates in Africa are the same in the rural and urban areas.
  • The people moving to the cities are primarily unattached singles, while the couples having families stay in the rural areas.
  • In the city children are to a lesser degree used as a labour force compared to what is the case in agriculture.
  • In the city having children usually carry more extra costs in terms of food, rent, school fees, etc. compared to the rural areas.

Q3. According to Meier zu Selhausen (2013), which of the following statements are correct?

  • Share of urban population in Africa is lower than in Latin America and South East Asia.
  • Share of urban population in Africa is the same as in Latin America and South East Asia.
  • Share of urban population in Africa is higher than in Latin America and South East Asia.

Q4. According to Meier zu Selhausen (2013), what are three challenges for the growing African cities?

  • Many city dwellers end up living in slums.
  • Although people move from the villages to the cities, their lifestyles do not fundamentally change.
  • Many city dwellers end up being self-employed in the informal economy instead of having a formal employment in the wage sector.
  • The African cities are expanding without expansion being accompanied by economic growth and economic structural change.
  • There is no expansion of industry and service sector jobs in the urban areas that could employ rural migrants.

Quiz 3: Regional economic integration

Q1. What new ingredients did the colonial powers bring to existing regional economic integration in Africa?

  • It encouraged economic cooperation between merchants and local companies.
  • It encouraged agreements between colonies belonging to the different colonial powers.
  • It brought integration up to the state level by setting up formal agreements between colonial administrations.

Q2. What was the ‘pan-African movement’?

  • The strive to further develop the economic regional collaboration between African states through the creation of economic blocks such as SADEC and COMESA.
  • A strive for solidarity and cooperation between Africans on the continent and in the diaspora to work together for the common good.
  • A formal agreement between the leaders of the newly independent African countries aiming to create the African United Nations.

Q3. According to Yaduma and Khan (2020), what are three benefits of regional economic blocks?

  • Enhanced ease of transfers of capital by individuals and businesses leading to more investments in the private sector.
  • Enhanced bargaining power in global markets.
  • Enhanced capacity to undertake regional infrastructure development projects.
  • Strengthening of individual countries institutional structures such as rule of law and property rights.
  • Increased economic growth and productivity.

Q4. Based on the writings of Yaduma and Khan (2020), what are three challenges for future increase in intra-Africa trade?

  • Despite their importance, non-tariff barriers such as country-specific standards and overlapping membership have been neglected.
  • The costs for transportations and handling of goods remain excessively high.
  • Trade with outside of Africa remains substantially larger compared to within-Africa trade.
  • The large heterogeneity within the African continent in terms of language and customs needs to be overcome to encourage future collaboration.
  • The role of the African Union needs to be strengthened to supervise the collaboration within the various economic blocks.

Quiz 4: Africa in the global economy

Q1. Which three statements about current trends in foreign direct investments, FDI, are correct?

  • Africa’s share in global FDI has decreased since 2013.
  • Within the African region, FDI is unevenly distributed.
  • Africa’s share in global FDI has consistently increased since the turn of the millennium.
  • Africa’ share of global FDI is substantial compared to Asia and Latin America.
  • Africa’s share of global FDI remains comparatively small.

Q2. The inflow of aid is commonly regarded to have what type of prospects?

1 point

Q3. Identify three examples of China’s increasing economic interest in Africa over the last decades.

  • China has shown interest in getting control over farm land to secure food for its growing urban population.
  • China has financed large infrastructure projects, for example railways.
  • Chinese economic interests are valuable for the individual African countries because it results in significant job creation.
  • China has invested in extractive sectors such as oil and mining.
  • Chinese investments in most African countries have primarily been directed towards indust

Quiz 5: Political development

Q1. Name three African leaders who have been accused of refusing to leave their office after their term limits or in other ways unlawfully holding on to power.

  • Yoweri Museveni in Uganda
  • Nelson Mandela in South Africa
  • Robert Mogabe in Zimbabwe
  • Paul Biya in Cameroon
  • Julius Nyerere in Tanzania

Q2. Which three of the following statements about political development in Africa are correct?

  • There has been pressure from the international donor community on African countries to become more democratic and hold multi-party elections.
  • There is clear evidence that since the turn of the millennium political change has been a major driver behind the positive trend in economic growth.
  • The end of the Cold War significantly impacted democratic development in Africa.
  • Africa continues to be a region plagued with coup d’états, civil war, and violent political protest.
  • There has been a substantial move towards democratization since the 1990s.

Q3. According to Ricart-Huguet (2019), what are the main political challenges endangering development in Africa?

  • Patrimonialism, protest, and politicians
  • Corruption, clientilism, and conflict
  • War, crime, and nepotism

Q4. According to Ricart-Huguet (2019), which three statements about the four countries Benin, Botswana, Mauritius, and Uganda are correct?

  • The post-independence outcome is primarily explained by the legacies of different colonial powers – Botswana and Uganda that are British colonies are doing better than Benin and Mauritius that were first colonized by France.
  • Botswana and Mauritius are widely held as economic and political success stories since independence.
  • Mauritius is an example of how ethnical inequality hampers economic growth.
  • Since independence, Benin and Uganda have experienced a political roller-coaster between low and high scores when measuring the quality of their democratic system.
  • At independence, Benin, Botswana, and Uganda were all politically “thin on the ground”, meaning that formal state institutions did not extend much beyond the capital.


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