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**Think Again II: How to Reason Deductively Quiz Answers**

### Week 1: Think Again II: How to Reason Deductively Coursera Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: “And” and the Truth-Functional Connectives

Q1. Which following bits of the English language sometimes expresses a truth-functional connective?

- a. “therefore”
- b. “necessarily, whenever”
- c. “it is possible that”
- d. “I believe that”
**e. None of the above.**

Q2. Which following bits of the English language sometimes expresses a truth-functional connective?

- a. “and afterwards”
- b. “unfortunately”
**c. “furthermore”**- d. “as I said before”
- e. None of the above

#### Quiz 2: Using Truth Tables to Show Validity

Q1. Which of the following asserts a conjunction of two or more propositions?

- a. I will either hate him or love him.
- b. Are you going to the playground and then to the supermarket?
- c. Turn off the lights and close the door.
**d. I have been seeing Peter but not Paul.**- e. None of the above.

Q2. Which of the following asserts a conjunction of two or more propositions?

**a. I drove to New York City and back.**- b. I said to drive to New York City and back.
- c. I think he drove to New York City and back.
- d. It happened because he drove to New York City and back.
- e. None of the above.

Q3. Which of the following arguments is valid?

**a. Alice and Jane are both talking.**

**Therefore, Alice is talking.**

- b. Alice and Jane are both talking.

Therefore, no one else is talking.

- c. Alice is talking.

Therefore, Alice and Jane are both talking.

- d. Alice is talking but Jane is not.

Therefore, Alice and Jane are both talking.

- e. None of the above.

Q4. A conjunction introduction argument is a valid argument in which the conclusion conjoins two or more of the premises. Which of the following arguments is a conjunction introduction argument?

- a. Alice and Jane are both talking.

Therefore, Alice is talking.

- b. Alice and Jane are both talking.

Therefore, no one else is talking.

- c. Alice is talking.

Therefore, Alice and Jane are both talking.

- d. Alice is talking but Jane is not.

Therefore, Alice is not talking.

**e. None of the above.**

Q5. A conjunction elimination argument is a valid argument in which the conclusion is a conjunct of some conjunction that appears in the premises. Which of the following arguments is a conjunction elimination argument?

**a. Alice and Jane are both talking.**

**Therefore, Alice is talking.**

- b. Alice and Jane are both talking.

Therefore, no one else is talking.

- c. Alice is talking.

Therefore, Alice and Jane are both talking.

- d. Alice is talking but Jane is not.

Therefore, Alice is not talking.

- e. None of the above.

Q6. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the truth table for conjunction:

p…..q……….p&q

T…..T……….

T…..F……….

F…..T……….

F…..F……….

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- a. TTTF
- b. TTFF
**c. TFFF**- d. FTFF
- e. FFTF

Q7. Now suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth table for conjunction:

p…..q……….p&q

F…..F……….

T…..T……….

F…..T……….

T…..F……….

Now, going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- a. TTTF
- b. TTFF
- c. TFFF
**d. FTFF**- e. FFTF

Q8. And now suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth table for conjunction:

p…..q……….p&q

F…..F……….

F…..T……….

T…..T……….

T…..F……….

Now, going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- a. TTTF
- b. TTFF
- c. TFFF
- d. FTFF
**e. FFTF**

#### Quiz 3: Disjunction

Q1. Which of the following arguments is valid?

- a. Yamamoto or Jiabao will be the US president in 2016.

Therefore, Yamamoto will be the US president in 2016.

- b. Jiabao will be the US president in 2016.

Therefore, Yamamoto or Jiabao will be the US president in 2016.

- c. Yamamoto will be the US president in 2016.

Therefore, Jiabao will never be the US president again.

- d. Yamamoto or Jiabao will be the US president in 2016.

Jiabao will not be the US president in 2016.

Therefore, Yamamoto will be the US president in 2016.

**e. Two or more of the above**

Q2. Let’s define a disjunction introduction argument as an argument with one premise, where the conclusion is a disjunction of that one premise and some other proposition. We could symbolize a disjunction introduction argument like this:

Premise: P

Conclusion: P or Q

Now, keeping this definition in mind, answer this question: which of the following arguments is a disjunction introduction argument?

- a. Yamamoto or Jiabao will be the US president in 2030.

Therefore, Yamamoto will be the US president in 2030.

**b. Jiabao will be the US president in 2030.**

**Therefore, Yamamoto or Jiabao will be the US president in 2016.**

- c. Yamamoto will be the US president in 2030.

Therefore, Jiabao will never be the US president again.

- d. Yamamoto or Jiabao will be the US president in 2030.

Jiabao will not be the US president in 2030.

Therefore, Yamamoto will be the US president in 2030.

- e. Two or more of the above

Q3. A disjunction elimination argument is a valid argument in which the conclusion is a disjunct of some disjunction that appears in the premises. Which of the following arguments is a disjunction elimination argument?

- a. Romney or Obama will be the US president in 2013.

Therefore, Romney will be the US president in 2013.

- b. Obama will be the US president in 2013.

Therefore, Romney or Obama will be the US president in 2013.

- c. Romney will be the US president in 2013.

Therefore, Obama will never be the US president again.

**d. Romney or Obama will be the US president in 2013.**

**Obama will not be the US president in 2013.**

Therefore, Romney will be the US president in 2013.

- e. Two or more of the above.

Q4. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the truth table for disjunction:

p…..q……….pVq

T…..T……….

T…..F……….

F…..T……….

F…..F……….

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

**a. TTTF**- b. TTFF
- c. TFFF
- d. FTFF
- e. FFTF

Q5. Now suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the truth table for disjunction:

p…..q……….pVq

F…..F……….

T…..T……….

F…..T……….

T…..F……….

Now, going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- a. TTTF
- b. TTFF
- c. TFFF
**d. FTTT**- e. FFTT

Q6. And now suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the truth table for disjunction:

p…..q……….pVq

F…..F……….

F…..T……….

T…..T……….

T…..F……….

Now, going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- a. TTTF
- b. TTFF
- c. TFFF
**d. FTTT**- e. FFTT

#### Quiz 4: Negation and Truth Functional Operators

Q1. Which of the following asserts the negation of a proposition?

- a. Do you think he’ll be coming home for Purim?
- b. Please don’t make so much noise!
**c. I do not like green eggs.**- d. Everything is going wrong today.
- e. None of the above.

Q2. Which of the following asserts the negation of a proposition?

- a. Please remember that Salvador Dali was not a musician.
- b. Dali and Picasso? Yikes!
- c. If you don’t talk to Dali or Picasso again, you will be sorry!
- d. May I keep buying Dali paintings if I don’t sell my Picasso sculptures?
**e. Neither Dali nor Picasso was a musician.**

Q3. Which of the following arguments is valid?

- a. Joe is not a plumber.

Therefore, it’s not true that Joe is a non-plumber.

- b. Either Joe is a plumber or Bob is a builder.

Joe is not a plumber.

Therefore, Bob is not a builder.

**c. It’s not true that Joe is a plumber.**

Therefore, Joe is a non-plumber.

- d. Either Joe is a plumber and Bob is a builder, or both Joe and Bob are plumbers.

Therefore, Bob is not a builder.

- e. None of the above.

#### Quiz 5: Negating Conjuctions and Disjunctions

Q1. Which of the following arguments is valid?

- a. Joe is not a plumber.

Therefore, it is not true that Joe is a non-plumber.

- b. Either Joe is a plumber or Bob is a builder.

Joe is not a plumber.

Therefore, Bob is not a builder.

**c. It is not true that Joe is a plumber.**

**Therefore, Joe is a non-plumber.**

- d. Either Joe is a plumber and Bob is a builder, or both Joe and Bob are Plumbers.

Therefore, Bob is not a builder.

- e. None of the above.

Q2. Which of the following arguments is valid?

**a. Walter is a teacher.**

**Joe is a plumber.**

**Plumbers are not teachers.**

**Therefore, Joe is not Walter.**

- b. Walter is a teacher.

Joe is a plumber.

Plumbers are sometimes not teachers.

Therefore, Joe is not a teacher.

- c. Walter is not a teacher.

Joe is not a plumber.

Someone who is not a plumber might also not be a teacher.

Therefore, Joe is Walter.

- d. Either Walter is not a teacher or Joe is not a plumber.

It’s not true that Joe is not a plumber.

Therefore, Walter is a plumber.

- e. None of the above.

Q3. Which of the following arguments is valid?

- a. Joe is not John.

John is not a plumber.

Therefore, Joe is not a plumber.

- b. James and Susan are not related.

Susan and Alice are not related.

Therefore, James and Alice are not related.

- c. James is not a nonconformist.

Either Susan is not a nonconformist or James is a conformist.

Therefore, Susan is not a nonconformist.

- d. Either Susan is a conformist or James is not a nonconformist.

Either Alice is a nonconformist or Susan is not a nonconformist.

Either James is a conformist or Susan is not a nonconformist.

Either Alice is not a nonconformist or she is not.

Susan is a conformist.

**e. None of the above.**

Q4. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p…..q……….p&q……….-(p&q)

T…..T

T…..F

F…..T

F…..F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- a. TTFF
- b. TFFF
- c. FFFT
- d. TFTF
**e. FTTT**

Q5. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p…..q……….pVq……….-(pVq)

T…..T

T…..F

F…..T

F…..F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- a. TTFF
- b. TFFF
- c. FFTT
- d. TFTF
**e. FFFT**

Q6. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p…..q…..-p…..-q……….-pV-q

T…..T

T…..F

F…..T

F…..F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- a. TTFF
- b. TFFF
- c. FFFT
- d. TFTF
**e. FTTT**

Q7. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p…..q…..r…..pVq…..-(pVq)…..-r…..-(pVq)&(-r)

T…..T…..T

T…..T…..F

T…..F…..T

T…..F…..F

F…..T…..T

F…..T…..F

F…..F…..T

F…..F…..F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

**a. FFFFFFFT**- b. FFFFTTTT
- c. FFFTTTTT
- d. TTTFFFFF
- e. TTTFFFTT

#### Quiz 6: The Conditional

Q1. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p q If p then q

T T

T F

F T

F F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- a. TFFF
- b. TTFF
- c. TFTF
**d. TFTT**- e. TFFT

Q2. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p q (pVq) If (pVq) then q

T T T F F T F F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- a. TFFF
- b. TTFF
- c. TFTF
**d. TFTT**- e. TFFT

Q3. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p q r p&q -(p&q) If r then -(p&q)

T T T T T F T F T T F F F T T F T F F F T F F F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- a. TTFTFTFT
- b. TTFFTTFF
- c. TFTFFFFF
**d. FTTTTTTT**- e. TFFTTTFF

Q4. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p q r If q then p If (if q then p) then r

T T T T T F T F T T F F F T T F T F F F T F F F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill it in?

- a. FTFTTTTT
- b. TTTFTFTF
- c. FFFTFTFT
- d. TFTTTTTT
**e. None of the above**

#### Quiz 7: Conditionals in Ordinary Language

Q1. Which of the following asserts a conditional?

**a. If John is not in his office, then he’s at home.**- b. Either John is not in his office, or he is.
- c. John and Jim are both in their offices.
- d. John is not in his office, but Jim is.
- e. None of the above.

Q2. Which of the following asserts a conditional?

- c. He knows that if James is not in his office, then Jim is.
- a. If you don’t have a green card, then could you please show me a driver’s license?
- e. None of the above.
**d. The teams will play this season only if the strike ends.**- b. I think that if we need to go, we will.

Q3. Which of the following arguments is valid?

- a. The teams will play this season only if the strike ends.

The strike will end. Therefore, the teams will play this season.

- b. If John goes, then Jim will stay.

John will not go and Jim will stay.

- c. If John goes, then Jim will stay.

Jim will stay. Therefore, John will go.

- d. They will get paid if they do their job.

They will get paid. Therefore, they will do their job.

**e. If John will go, then Jim will stay.**

John will go. Jim will stay.

Q4. Which of the following arguments is valid?

- a. If you are rich, then you are happy.

You are happy. Therefore, you are rich.

**b. If you are rich, then you are sad.**

You are not sad. Therefore, you are not rich.

- c. If you are sad and rich, then you don’t deserve your wealth.

You are sad. Therefore, you are not rich.

- d. If you are neither sad nor rich, then you are happy.

You are not happy. You are both sad and rich.

- e. None of the above.

#### Quiz 8: Biconditionals

Q1. Which of the following asserts a biconditional?

**a. He wins if, and only if, every other player loses.**- b. He will win no matter whether every other player loses.
- c. If every other player loses, then he will win.
- d. He will win, unless every other player loses.
- e. He will win only if every other player loses.

Q2. How would you fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p q p≡q T T T F F T F F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- a. TFFF
- b. TTFF
- c. TFTF
- d. TFTT
**e. TFFT**

Q3. How would you fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p q p&q -p -p≡(p&q) T T T F F T F F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- a. TTTF
- b. TTFF
- c. FFFF
- d. TFTT
**e. FTFF**

### Week 2: Think Again II: How to Reason Deductively Coursera Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: How Quantifiers Modify Categories

Q1. Which of the following statements is of the A form?

**(a) All whales are fish.**- (b) No whales are fish.
- (c) Some whales are fish.
- (d) Some whales are not fish.
- (e) None of the above

Q2. Which of the following statements is of the E form?

- (a) All whales are fish.
**(b) No whales are fish.**- (c) Some whales are fish.
- (d) Some whales are not fish.
- (e) None of the above

Q3. Which of the following statements is of the I form?

- (a) All whales are fish.
- (b) No whales are fish.
**(c) Some whales are fish.**- (d) Some whales are not fish.
- (e) None of the above

Q4. Which of the following statements is of the O form?

- (a) All whales are fish.
- (b) No whales are fish.
- (c) Some whales are fish.
**(d) Some whales are not fish.**- (e) None of the above

Q5. Which of the following statements is of the A form?

**(a) Everyone hates you.**- (b) Someone hates you.
- (c) Nobody hates you.
- (d) Someone doesn’t hate you.
- (e) None of the above.

Q6. Which of the following statements is of the E form?

- (a) Everyone hates you.
- (b) Someone hates you.
- (c) Nobody hates you.
**(d) Someone doesn’t hate you.**- (e) None of the above.

Q7. Which of the following statements is of the I form?

- (a) Everyone hates you.
**(b) Someone hates you.**- (c) Nobody hates you.
- (d) Someone doesn’t hate you.
- (e) None of the above.

Q8. Which of the following statements is of the O form?

- (a) Everyone hates you.
- (b) Someone hates you.
- (c) Nobody hates you.
**(d) Someone doesn’t hate you.**- (e) None of the above.

Q9. Which of the following pairs of statements are inconsistent with each other?

- (a) Some sheep are purple; some sheep are not purple.
- (b) All sheep are purple; no sheep are purple.
**(c) Some sheep are purple; no sheep are purple.**- (d) All of the above.
- (e) None of the above.

Q10. Which of the following pairs of statements are inconsistent with each other?

**(a) All otters are quotable; some otter is not quotable.**- (b) No otters are quotable; some otters are not quotable.
- (c) Some otters are quotable; some otters are not quotable.
- (d) All otters are quotable; no otters are quotable.
- (e) None of the above.

#### Quiz 2: Immediate Categorical Inferences

Q1. Which of the following is a valid Immediate Categorical Inference?

**(a) All sheep are brown.**

**Therefore, Horace the sheep is brown.**

- (b) All the sheep in our field are brown.

Therefore, Chloe is a sheep in our field.

- (c) All sheep are brown.

Therefore, some sheep is brown.

- (d) All the sheep are brown.

Therefore, no sheep are brown.

- (e) None of the above.

Q2. Which of the following is a valid Immediate Categorical Inference?

- (a) All the quotable otters are authors.

Therefore, Trotter is a quotable otter.

**(b) All otters are authors.**

**Therefore, Trotter the otter is an author.**

- (c) All otters are authors.

Therefore, some otter is not an author.

- (d) No quotable otter is an author.

Therefore, Waldo the otter is not quotable.

- (e) None of the above

Q3. Which of the following statements is inconsistent with “All politicians are honest”?

- (a) All politicians are honest.
- (b) No politicians are honest.
- (c) Some politicians are honest.
**(d) Some politicians are not honest.**- (e) None of the above

Q4. Which of the following statements is inconsistent with “No politicians are honest”?

- (a) All politicians are honest.
- (b) No politicians are honest.
**(c) Some politicians are honest.**- (d) Some politicians are not honest.
- (e) None of the above

Q5. Which of the following statements is inconsistent with “Some politicians are honest”?

- (a) All politicians are honest.
**(b) No politicians are honest.**- (c) Some politicians are honest.
- (d) Some politicians are not honest.
- (e) None of the above

Q6. Which of the following statements is inconsistent with “Some politicians are not honest”?

**(a) All politicians are honest.**- (b) No politicians are honest.
- (c) Some politicians are honest.
- (d) Some politicians are not honest.
- (e) None of the above

Q7. Which of the following statements is inconsistent with “Some non-bankers are not honest”?

**(a) All non-bankers are honest.**- (b) No bankers are honest.
- (c) Some non-bankers are honest.
- (d) Some non-bankers are not honest.
- (e) None of the above

Q8. Which of the following statements is inconsistent with “All non-giraffes are not mammals”?

- (a) All non-giraffes are not mammals.
- (b) No non-giraffes are not mammals.
- (c) Some non-giraffes are not mammals.
- (d) Some giraffes are mammals.
**(e) None of the above**

Q9. Which of the following statements is inconsistent with “No non-turtles are not female”?

**(a) Some non-turtles are not female.**- (b) All turtles are female.
- (c) All non-turtles are not female.
- (d) Some turtles are not female.
- (e) None of the above

Q10. Which of the following statements is inconsistent with “No non-turtles are honest”?

**(a) Some non-turtles are honest.**- (b) All turtles are honest.
- (c) All non-turtles are honest.
- (d) Some turtles are not honest.
- (e) None of the above

Q11. Which of the following statements is inconsistent with “No non-dodos are not quotable”?

- (a) All non-dodos are not quotable.
- (b) No dodos are quotable.
**(c) Some non-dodos are not quotable.**- (d) All non-dodos are quotable.
- (e) None of the above

Q12. Suppose it is true that all non-otters are not authors. In that case, which of the following statements would have to be false?

- (a) No otters are authors.
- (b) Some non-authors are otters.
- (c) No non-otters are not authors.
- (d) Some non-otters are not authors.
**(e) None of the above**

#### Quiz 3: Syllogisms

Q1. Which of the following arguments is a syllogism?

- (a) All the dodos are quotable.

Possibly, quotable things are omnivores.

So all dodos are omnivores.

- (b) Everyone who owns a dodo also stares at goats.

Sometimes, somebody has fun when someone stares at goats.

So sometimes, somebody has fun when someone owns a dodo. 2

- (c) Some otters are authors.
- So not all otters are non-authors.
- (d) Every guard along the hall is followed by a fiercer guard.

Some guards are along the hall.

So there is no fiercest guard.

**(e) None of the above.**

Q2. Which of the following arguments is a syllogism?

- (a) All otters are authors.

Some otters are authors because they are quotable.

Therefore, some otters are quotable.

- (b) Some funerals are lamentable.

Some things are arranged by birds.

So all funerals are fun.

- (c) Some movie scenes are terrible.

No terrible thing is more terrible than any other terrible thing.

So all the movie scenes are equally terrible.

**(d) All dodos are birds.**

**Some birds are not witches.So all dodos are witches.**

- (e) None of the above.

Q3. Which of the following arguments is a valid syllogism?

(Hint: try drawing Venn diagrams to see!)

- (a) Some dodos are quotable.

Some quotable things are omnivores.

So some dodos are omnivores.

- (b) Some composite objects are material objects.

All material objects are spatially locatable.

So all composite objects are spatially locatable.

**(c) Some dodos are authors.**

**All authors are witches.Therefore, some dodos are witches.**

- (d) All otters are mammals.

All mammals are quotable.

So there are otters.

- (e) None of the above.

Q4. Which of the following arguments is a valid syllogism?

(Hint: try drawing Venn diagrams to see!)

- (a) Some authors are omnivores.

All omnivores are material objects.

So all authors are material objects.

- (b) Some otters are quotable.

No quotable things are omnivores.

So no otters are omnivores.

- (c) No dodos are authors.

No authors are witches.

Therefore, no dodos are witches.

**(d) All otters are mammals.**

**All mammals are quotable.So all otters are quotable.**

- (e) None of the above.

#### Quiz 4: Categories, Individuals, and Language

Q1. Consider the statement “The only time I read a book by Mark Twain was when I was in prison.” Which of the following statements is equivalent to this last statement?

**a. All times that I read a Mark Twain book are times that I was in prison.**- b. All times that I was in prison are times that I read a Mark Twain book.
- c. Some of the times that I was in prison are times that I read a Mark Twain book.
- d. Some of the times that I read a Mark Twain book are times that I was in prison.
- e. Some of the times that I read a Mark Twain book are not times that I was in prison.

Q2. Consider the statement “Phoebe bakes nothing but pies, but those pies taste great.” Which of the following Venn Diagrams is equivalent to this last statement?

- a.

- b

- c.

**d.**

- e. None of the above.

Q3. Consider the statement “George Washington slept in New Jersey at least once in 1789.” Which of the following statements is equivalent to this last statement?

- a. None of the places that George Washington slept in 1789 are in New Jersey.
- b. Some of the places that George Washington slept in 1789 are not in New Jersey.
**c. Some of the places that George Washington slept in 1789 are places in New Jersey.**- d. All of the places that George Washington slept in 1789 are places in New Jersey.
- e. All of the places in New Jersey in 1789 are places that George Washington slept.

#### Quiz 5: Venn Diagrams and Validity

Q1. Which of the following statements conveys the same information that this Venn Diagram conveys?

**a. There are fish, and all of them are carnivorous sharks.**- b. There are fish, and all sharks are carnivorous.
- c. There are carnivorous sharks, and all of them are fish.
- d. There are carnivores, and all of them are both sharks and fish.
- e. None of the above.

Q2. Which of the following statements conveys the same information that this Venn Diagram conveys?

- a. There are fish, and all of them are carnivorous sharks.
- b. There are fish, and all sharks are carnivorous.
- c. There are carnivorous sharks, and all of them are fish.
- d. There are carnivores, and all of them are both sharks and fish.
**e. None of the above.**

Q3. Consider this argument:

All parties are fun

Therefore, all non-fun events are not parties.

Which of these Venn Diagrams conveys the same information that the above argument conveys?

- a.

**b.**

- c.

- d.

- e.

Q4. Consider this argument:

All fun events are parties

Therefore, all non-parties are not fun.

Which of these Venn Diagrams conveys the same information that the above argument conveys?

- a.

- b.

**c.**

- d.

- e.

### Week 3: Think Again II: How to Reason Deductively Coursera Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Reasoning from Venn Diagrams or Truth Tables Alone

Q1. When Kel As are Bs, then the following Venn Diagram is correct:

Which of the following statements is consistent with “Kel As are Bs”?

- (a) No As are Bs
**(b) Some As are Bs**- (c) All As are Bs
- (d) Two or more of the above
- (e) None of the above

Q2. Which of the following statements is inconsistent with “Kel As are Bs”?

- (a) No As are Bs
- (b) Some As are Bs
- (c) All As are Bs
**(d) Two or more of the above**- (e) None of the above

Q3. Which of the following arguments (using the expression “Kel”) is valid?

- (a) Kel dodos are quotable.

Therefore no dodos are not quotable. - (b) Kel dodos are quotable.

Therefore some non-dodos are quotable. **(c) Kel dodos are quotable.**

Therefore some dodos are not quotable.- (d) Kel dodos are quotable.

Therefore all non-dodos are not quotable. - (e) None of the above.

Q4. Which of the following arguments (using the expression “Kel”) is invalid?

- (a) Kel dodos are quotable.

Therefore some dodos are not quotable. **(b) Kel dodos are quotable.**

Therefore no dodos are quotable.- (c) Kel dodos are quotable.

Therefore some dodos are quotable. - (d) Kel dodos are quotable.

Therefore not all dodos are quotable. - (e) None of the above.

Q5. When Kam As are Bs, then the following Venn Diagram is correct:

Which of the following statements is consistent with “Kam As are Bs”?

- (a) No A’s are B’s
- (b) Some A’s are B’s
- (c) All A’s are B’s
**(d) Two or more of the above.**- (e) None of the above.

Q6. Which of the following statements is inconsistent with “Kam As are Bs”?

- (a) No As are Bs
**(b) Some As are Bs**- (c) All As are Bs
- (d) None of the above
- (e) Two or more of the above.

Q7. Which of the following arguments (using the expression “Kam”) is valid?

**(a) Kam dodos are quotable.**

Therefore no dodos are quotable.- (b) Kam dodos are quotable.

Therefore some dodos are quotable. - (c) Kam dodos are quotable.

Therefore some dodos are not quotable. - (d) Kam dodos are quotable.

Therefore all non-dodos are quotable. - (e) None of the above.

Q8. Which of the following arguments (using the expression “Kam”) is invalid?

- (a) Kam dodos are quotable.

Therefore no dodos are quotable. - (b) Kam dodos are quotable.

Therefore no dodos are not quotable. - (c) Kam dodos are quotable.

Therefore all dodos are not quotable. **(d) Kam dodos are quotable.**

Therefore some dodos are quotable.- (e) None of the above.

### Week 4: Think Again II: How to Reason Deductively Coursera Quiz Answers

#### Quiz 1: Final Quiz

Q1. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth table:

p…..q……….~pVq

T…..T……….

T…..F……….

F…..T……….

F…..F……….

Now, going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- FTFF
- FTTF
- TFTT
- FTFT
- None of the above

Q2. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth table:

p…..q……….p⊃~q

T…..T……….

T…..F……….

F…..T……….

F…..F……….

Now, going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- TFFT
- TFFF
- FTTT
- FFTF
- None of the above

Q3. And now suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth table:

p…..q…..r…..pV~(qVr)

T…..T…..T……….

T…..T…..F……….

T…..F…..T……….

T…..F…..F……….

F…..T…..T……….

F…..T…..F……….

F…..F…..T……….

F…..F…..F……….

Now, going from top to bottom, how would you fill in that column?

- FTFFFFTF
- FFTTFFFF
- TTFFTTFF
- TTTTFFFT
- None of the above

Q4. Which of these claims follows from ~pVq?

- p&q
- q
- ~p
- p
- None of that above

Q5. Which of these claims follows from p⊃~q?

- p
- ~q
- ~p
- q⊃p
- None of the above

Q6. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p…..q…..r…..pVq…..~(pVq)…..~(pVq)&r

T…..T…..T

T…..T…..F

T…..F…..T

T…..F…..F

F…..T…..T

F…..T…..F

F…..F…..T

F…..F…..F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill it in?

- FFFTTTTT
- TTTFFFFF
- FFFFFFTF
- TFTTTTTT
- None of the above

Q7. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p…..q…..r…..pVq…..~(pVq)…..~r…..~(pVq)&~r

T…..T…..T

T…..T…..F

T…..F…..T

T…..F…..F

F…..T…..T

F…..T…..F

F…..F…..T

F…..F…..F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill it in?

- FFFTTTTT
- TTTFFFFF
- FFFFFFFT
- TTTTTTFF
- None of the above

Q8. Which of these claims follows from ~p⊃(qVr)?

- ~p
- qVr
- (qVr)⊃p
- r
- None of the above

Q9. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p…..q…..r…..p&q…..~(p&q)…..~(p&q)Vr

T…..T…..T

T…..T…..F

T…..F…..T

T…..F…..F

F…..T…..T

F…..T…..F

F…..F…..T

F…..F…..F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill it in?

- FFFTTTTT
- TTTFFFFF
- FFFFFFFT
- TFTTTTTT
- None of the above

Q10. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p…..q…..r…..pVq…..p&r…..(pVq)≡(p&r)

T…..T…..T

T…..T…..F

T…..F…..T

T…..F…..F

F…..T…..T

F…..T…..F

F…..F…..T

F…..F…..F

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill it in?

- FTFTTTTT
- TTFFFTFT
- FFFTFTFT
- TFTFFFTT
- None of the above

Q11. The truth-functional connective SNERG has the following truth-table:

p…..q…..r…..SNERG(p,q,r)

T…..T…..T…..F

T…..T…..F…..F

T…..F…..T…..F

T…..F…..F…..T

F…..T…..T…..T

F…..T…..F…..F

F…..F…..T…..F

F…..F…..F…..F

Which of the following has the same truth-table as SNERG?

- q&r&~p
- qV~(r≡p)
- ~[(q≡r)≡p]
- (q&~p)≡r
- None of the above

Q12. The truth-functional connective SKANG has the following truth-table:

p…..q…..SKANG(p,q)

T…..T…..F

T…..F…..T

F…..T…..F

F…..F…..F

Which of the following has the same truth-table as SKANG?

- pVq
- p&~q
- ~(p≡q)
- ~(p&q)
- None of the above

Q13. The truth-functional connective SNERG has the following truth-table:

p…..q…..r…..SNERG(p,q,r)

T…..T…..T…..F

T…..T…..F…..F

T…..F…..T…..F

T…..F…..F…..T

F…..T…..T…..T

F…..T…..F…..F

F…..F…..T…..F

F…..F…..F…..F

Which of the following arguments is valid?

- p

q

SNERG(p,q,r)

- ~pVr

~q

SNERG(p,q,r)

- ~p

q&r

SNERG(p,q,r)

- pV~r

q

SNERG(p,q,r)

- None of the above

Q14. The truth-functional connective SNERG has the following truth-table:

p…..q…..r…..SNERG(p,q,r)

T…..T…..T…..F

T…..T…..F…..F

T…..F…..T…..F

T…..F…..F…..T

F…..T…..T…..T

F…..T…..F…..F

F…..F…..T…..F

F…..F…..F…..F

Which of the following arguments is valid?

- ~p

~q

SNERG(p,q,r)

- ~pVr

q

SNERG(p,q,r)

- p

~q&r

SNERG(p,q,r)

- ~p&~r

q

SNERG(p,q,r)

- None of the above

Q15. Which of the following pairs of statements can both be true at the same time?

- All wizards are tall; no wizards are tall.
- All wizards are tall; some wizards are not tall.
- Some wizards are tall; no wizards are tall.
- All of the above.
- None of the above.

Q16. Suppose you had to fill in the rightmost column of the following truth-table:

p…..q…..r…..SHMORG(p,q)…..SHMORG(pVr,SHMORG(p,q))

T…..T…..T…..F

T…..T…..F…..F

T…..F…..T…..F

T…..F…..F…..F

F…..T…..T…..F

F…..T…..F…..F

F…..F…..T…..T

F…..F…..F…..T

Going from top to bottom, how would you fill it in?

FTFTFTFT

FTFTFTFF

TTTFFFFF

FFFFFTFF

None of the above

Q17. Which of the following Venn Diagrams represents the statement that some living sequoia trees are not tall?

- .

- .

- .

- All of the above
- None of the above

Q18. The truth-functional connective BLIM has the following truth-table:

p…..q…..r…..BLIM(p,q,r)

T…..T…..T…..T

T…..T…..F…..F

T…..F…..T…..F

T…..F…..F…..T

F…..T…..T…..T

F…..T…..F…..F

F…..F…..T…..F

F…..F…..F…..T

BLIM(p,q,r) is true if which of the following are true?

- p and q are true but r is false
- p and r are true but q is false
- p and r are false, but q is true
- p and q are false but r is true
- None of the above

Q19. Suppose your premise is (pVq)&[(p⊃q)⊃r]. Which of the following conclusions can be deduced from that premise?

r

p

p⊃q

q

None of the above

Q20. Which of the following pairs of statements is consistent?

- All odd numbers are primes; no odd numbers are primes.
- All odd numbers are primes; some odd numbers are not primes.
- Some odd numbers are primes; no odd numbers are primes.
- All of the above.
- None of the above.

Q21. The truth-functional connective BLIM has the following truth-table:

p…..q…..r…..BLIM(p,q,r)

T…..T…..T…..T

T…..T…..F…..F

T…..F…..T…..F

T…..F…..F…..T

F…..T…..T…..T

F…..T…..F…..F

F…..F…..T…..F

F…..F…..F…..T

Which of the following inferences is valid?

BLIM(p⊃q,p⊃r,q⊃r)

q⊃r

BLIM(p⊃q,p⊃r,q⊃r)

p⊃r

BLIM(p⊃q,p⊃r,q⊃r)

p

BLIM(p⊃q,p⊃r,q⊃r)

p≣r

None of the above

Q22. Which (one or more) of the following pairs of statements is consistent?

- It’s not the case that all trees are tall; no trees are tall.
- All trees are not tall; some trees are not tall.
- Some trees are tall; no trees are not tall.
- All of the above.
- None of the above.

Q23. Which of the following Venn Diagrams represents the statement that all trees are tall?

- .

- .

- .

- .

- None of the above

Q24. Statements of the form “FRONK As are Bs” are represented by means of Venn Diagrams that look like this:

Which of the following statements is consistent with “FRONK trees are deciduous”?

- All trees are deciduous
- No trees are deciduous
- Some trees are deciduous
- Some trees are not deciduous
- Two or more of the above

Q25. Which of the following is valid?

- No leopards are shepherds

Therefore some leopards are not shepherds

- Not all leopards are shepherds

Therefore no leopards are shepherds

- Some leopards are not shepherds

Therefore not all leopards are shepherds

- Some leopards are not shepherds

Therefore some leopards are shepherds

- None of the above

Q26. Statements of the form “FRONK As are Bs” are represented by means of Venn Diagrams that look like this:

Which of the following statements means the same as “FRONK trees are deciduous and all deciduous things are organisms”?

- Some trees are organisms
- All trees are organisms
- Some trees are not organisms
- No trees are organisms
- None of the above

Q27. Which of the following is valid?

- All otters are authors

Therefore, some otters are not authors

- No otters are authors

Therefore, no otters are not authors

- Some otters are authors

Therefore, some otters are not authors

- It is not the case that no otters are authors

Therefore, some otters are authors

- None of the above

Q28. Which of the following is valid?

- Some gophers are chauffeurs

Some chauffeurs are loafers

So some gophers are loafers

- All gophers are chauffeurs

Some chauffeurs are loafers

So some gophers are loafers

- All gophers are chauffeurs

All chauffeurs are loafers

So all gophers are loafers

- No gophers are chauffeurs

No chauffeurs are loafers

No some gophers are loafers

- None of the above

Q29. Statements of the form “FRONK As are Bs” are represented by means of Venn Diagrams that look like this:

Which of the following statements is inconsistent with “FRONK trees are deciduous”?

- All trees are deciduous
- No trees are deciduous
- Some trees are deciduous
- Some trees are not deciduous
- None of the above

Q30. Which of the following is valid?

- No baboons are goons.

No goons are maroon.

Therefore, no baboons are maroon.

- All baboons are goons.

All goons are maroon.

Therefore, all baboons are maroon.

- All baboons are goons.

Some goons are maroon.

Therefore, some baboons are maroon.

- Some baboons are goons.

Some goons are maroon.

Therefore, some baboons are maroon.

- None of the above.

**We will Update These Answers Soon.**

**More About This Course**

Deductive arguments should be true because the premises prove that the conclusion is correct. In this course, you’ll learn how to use truth tables and Venn diagrams to show the information in an argument’s premises and conclusion so that you can figure out if the argument is valid.

Suggested Reading: Understanding Arguments: An Introduction to Informal Logic, Ninth Edition, Concise, Chapters 6 and 7 by Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and Robert Fogelin is a good book for students who want more in-depth explanations or more exercises or who want to learn more about these topics.

Format of the course: Each week will have a number of short video segments that can be watched alone or in groups. There will be a longer quiz at the end of the course that will be graded. There will also be short quizzes after each segment that will not be graded.

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